This report is a collaborative effort based on the input and analysis of the following individuals. Claudia Deane, director of research practices, and Rich Morin, senior editor, provided editorial guidance. Kim Parker, director of social trends research, and Juliana Menasce Horowitz, associate director of research, designed the surveys and wrote the overview and two main survey chapters. Wendy Wang, senior researcher, and Anna Brown, research assistant, compiled the data for the chapter on female leadership. Wang wrote the chapter on female leadership. Brown and Eileen Patten, research analyst, number-checked the report. The report was copy-edited by Marcia Kramer of Kramer Editing Services. Michael Suh provided Web support. Find related reports online at /socialtrends .
In 1951, the Knights of Columbus , the world's largest Catholic fraternal service organization , also began including the words "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance.  In New York City, on April 30, 1951, the board of directors of the Knights of Columbus adopted a resolution to amend the text of their Pledge of Allegiance at the opening of each of the meetings of the 800 Fourth Degree Assemblies of the Knights of Columbus by addition of the words "under God" after the words "one nation." Over the next two years, the idea spread throughout Knights of Columbus organizations nationwide. On August 21, 1952, the Supreme Council of the Knights of Columbus at its annual meeting adopted a resolution urging that the change be made universal, and copies of this resolution were sent to the President, the Vice President (as Presiding Officer of the Senate), and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. The National Fraternal Congress meeting in Boston on September 24, 1952, adopted a similar resolution upon the recommendation of its president, Supreme Knight Luke E. Hart . Several State Fraternal Congresses acted likewise almost immediately thereafter. This campaign led to several official attempts to prompt Congress to adopt the Knights of Columbus policy for the entire nation. These attempts were eventually a success. 
Thank you for this great article. I read through the comments, and didn't find reference to what I think is the elephant in the room (no pun intended), that the Bernie campaign is trying to address: The housing bubble that precipitated the crash that created the Great Recession was done mostly on the backs of people of color. The bankers who profited from preying on the black communities got bailed out to the tune of trillions of taxpayer dollars, their victims mostly lost their homes. The perpetrators were never even indicted by the Obama administration, which had been tight with Wall Street (Treasury Sec., et al) from the beginning. His AG, Eric Holder, came from a law firm that represented international financial companies, including those on Wall Street, and returned after retirement to that same firm. Our current Democratic "Establishment" is as closely aligned with Wall Street as the Republicans. The ACA was a huge gift to the insurance industry, whom Obama had also negotiated with while a Senator in Illinois. After that negotiation, he admitted on the Illinois Senate floor, "we changed [the single payer healthcare bill]" he had sponsored. "We changed it a lot," to one that was no longer Single Payer. Nor did he fight for Single Payer as President. So Bernie wants to fight for it, and Hillary wants to tweak the ACA around the edges. In the end, it is we the people who will have to demand the changes we deserve, and we deserve Single Payer, and only Bernie will help us fight for that. Which brings us to the issue of picking our nominee: the DNC leadership should allow voters a fair shot at picking the nominee, the way it's rigged is found in this article: here: https:///a/read/1216376239, "Blue-state Bernie and the DNC’s Plutocratic “Victory” Rules." To say Democrats are not as bad as Republicans is missing the point. If we the people can't force our government to be one that is "of the people, by the people and for the people," then it is not a democracy, and we only have ourselves to blame. We have to do much more than vote, we have to lean on the leaders in the Democratic party to be true to its small "d" democratic principles, and give us a fair primary. Or it must die as a party just like Republicans. Change from within, or without. But no more catering to Wall Street. Electing Bernie will go a long way to ending that.