1) For Patients Not Currently Treated with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA):
Initial dose: mcg/kg body weight administered as a single IV or subcutaneous injection once every two weeks
Epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol should be dosed to achieve and maintain hemoglobin between 10 and 12 g/dL. Once the hemoglobin has been maintained within this range, epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol may be administered once monthly using a dose that is twice that of the every two week dose and subsequently titrated as necessary.
2) For Patients Currently Treated with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA):
Epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol can be administered once every two weeks or once monthly to patients whose hemoglobin has been stabilized by treatment with an ESA. The dose of epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol, given as a single IV or subcutaneous injection, should be based on the total weekly ESA dose at the time of conversion.
If the previous weekly epoetin alfa dose was less than 8000 units per week or the previous weekly darbepoetin alfa dose was less than 40 mcg per week, then the epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol dose would be 120 mcg per month or 60 mcg every two weeks.
If the previous weekly epoetin alfa dose was from 8000 units to 16,000 units per week or the previous weekly darbepoetin alfa dose was from 40 mcg to 80 mcg per week, then the epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol dose would be 200 mcg per month or 100 mcg every two weeks.
If the previous weekly epoetin alfa dose was greater than 16,000 units per week or the previous weekly darbepoetin alfa dose was greater than 80 mcg per week, then the epoetin beta-methoxy polyethylene glycol dose would be 360 mcg per month or 180 mcg every two weeks.
Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine (as indicated in the treatment of cold sores) has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. J. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in 2004 he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone.  A possible cause of incorrect urine test results is the presence of metabolites from other AAS, though modern urinalysis can usually determine the exact AAS used by analyzing the ratio of the two remaining nandrolone metabolites. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport . On October 5, 2007, three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000. 
In the late 1950s, pharmaceutical companies were actively researching a newly discovered class of anti-estrogen compounds in the hope of developing a morning-after contraceptive pill. Arthur L Walpole was a reproductive endocrinologist who led such a team at the Alderley Park research laboratories of ICI Pharmaceuticals.  It was there in 1966 that Dora Richardson first synthesised tamoxifen, known then as ICI-46,474.  Walpole and his colleagues filed a UK patent covering this compound in 1962, but patent protection on this compound was repeatedly denied in the US until the 1980s.  Tamoxifen did eventually receive marketing approval as a fertility treatment, but the class of compounds never proved useful in human contraception. A link between estrogen and breast cancer had been known for many years, but cancer treatments were not a corporate priority at the time, and Walpole's personal interests were important in keeping support for the compound alive in the face of this and the lack of patent protection.