Consistent evidence from longitudinal studies and clinical trials indicates that the risk of dementia is increased in individuals with diabetes. As there is currently no specific cure for dementia, early interventions targeting modifiable risk factors may offer an important way of preventing the cognitive decline that occurs over a long period prior to the onset of dementia. However, the associations of HbA 1c and diabetes with subsequent cognitive decline are not well established. In this issue, Zheng et al (https:////s00125-017-4541-7) report that, compared with individuals with normoglycaemia, people with diabetes or prediabetes (defined as HbA 1c levels in the range - mmol/mol [-%]) had significantly faster rates of long-term cognitive decline. Further HbA 1c levels were linearly associated with subsequent cognitive decline, irrespective of diabetes status at baseline. These findings indicate that diabetes status is longitudinally associated with the trajectory of cognitive decline over the long term and provide further support for recommending HbA1c as a marker of glucose management in clinical practice. [Text supplied by the authors.]
Relative poverty is the "most useful measure for ascertaining poverty rates in wealthy developed nations".      Relative poverty measure is used by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Canadian poverty researchers.      In the European Union, the "relative poverty measure is the most prominent and most–quoted of the EU social inclusion indicators".