One exception in this line of research is the finding that for highly creative individuals, a moderate noise level may lead to higher creative performance relative to both low and high noise levels (Toplyn and Maguire 1991 ). Toplyn and Maguire had participants complete a number of creativity tasks and used their performance on one such task (the RAT) to assess their baseline creativity level. They found that highly creative individuals (defined as those who scored high on the RAT) exhibited greater creativity on other tasks when presented with a moderate level of white noise than when the noise level was either high or low. Toplyn and Maguire speculate that arousal may underlie this effect. For less creative individuals, on the other hand, no significant difference was observed among low, moderate, and high levels of noise.
A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that in 2011, sedatives and hypnotics were a leading source for adverse drug events seen in the hospital setting. Approximately % of all ADEs present on admission and % of ADEs that originated during a hospital stay were caused by a sedative or hypnotic drug.  A second study by AHRQ found that in 2011, the most common specifically identified causes of adverse drug events that originated during hospital stays in the . were steroids, antibiotics, opiates/narcotics, and anticoagulants. Patients treated in urban teaching hospitals had higher rates of ADEs involving antibiotics and opiates/narcotics compared to those treated in urban nonteaching hospitals. Those treated in private, nonprofit hospitals had higher rates of most ADE causes compared to patients treated in public or private, for-profit hospitals.