A low sodium level in the blood may result from excess water or fluid in the body, diluting the normal amount of sodium so that the concentration appears low. This type of hyponatremia can be the result of chronic conditions such as kidney failure (when excess fluid cannot be efficiently excreted) and congestive heart failure , in which excess fluid accumulates in the body. SIADH (syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone) is a disease whereby the body produces too much anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in retention of water in the body. Consuming excess water, for example during strenuous exercise , without adequate replacement of sodium, can also result in hyponatremia.
Cortisol supplements should only be taken for cases of severe cortisol deficiency, caused by serious disorders such as Addison’s or tuberculosis. If synthetic cortisol is taken when low cortisol levels are not severe enough to warrant it, this can result in a loss of natural cortisol production in the adrenal glands. Patients who see a decrease in their adrenal gland’s natural cortisol production will actually need to take extra cortisol during times of particular stress or activity, such as an illness, to make up for the lowered levels.
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